Design is a drawing, project, drawing, sketch. If you combine the terms graphics and design, you get graphic design (writing project, drawing, sketch, drawing). Graphic design is a special field of art, including flat and volumetric images, fonts, decorative elements. The definition of the term “font” (“schrift” – in translation from German. denotes a graphic design, lettering and signs that constitute a single stylistic and compositional system.
Environmental design is one of the most current trends in the industry. People want to see the world around them arranged.
The main problem of interior design is to make not only beautiful, but also convenient. Interior designers are categorically against standard apartments, furniture and wallpaper. And at the first opportunity, they take the layout of the rooms, and break down the walls. At the same time and stereotypes.
The problem. Create a space with a unique style, aura, energy – an art, which we have to master. Skillfully manipulating the light, volume, shape, color, to achieve harmony – the state when the “soul relaxes. After all, space can heal, have a beneficial effect.
Objective: to create a graphic design for a living room.
- Study of literature on the topic of research.
- To analyze the living space to be worked on.
- Creation of graphic design of the room.
Practical orientation. Creating a graphic interior design, we can easily translate the idea into reality.
Definition of the concept and history of graphic interior design.
The word “design” has become almost native to us. The English word “design” refers to design (for production purposes) in many areas, from urban planning (including architecture) to household items. Here the term has successfully replaced the old name “decorative art.” Real design is about products that are functional, beautiful, and reasonably priced.
Graphics is the art of depicting objects with contour lines and strokes. Sometimes the use of colored stains is allowed in graphics.
Design – in a broad sense – artistic construction of the objective world; development of patterns of rational construction of the objective environment.
Graphic design is artistic design activity to create a harmonious and effective visual and communicative environment. Graphic design makes an innovative contribution to the development of socio-economic and cultural sphere, contributing to the formation of the visual landscape of today.
Styles in interior design.
Interior design of a cottage, house or apartment has its own mood and atmosphere, its own In interior design, as well as in art in general, there are many directions and styles. Below will be a brief description of interior design styles.
You can choose one of them. Can consult their choice with experts. Can, based on descriptions and reading additional literature to choose a certain blend of styles, some style of design, like nothing else, the variant that most fully and adequately expresses your inner world, your idea of beauty and comfort.
In a modern era of high information content and detailed knowledge of the world civilization with the culture of each nation, an opportunity to use the unique features of different cultures and architectural styles in the design of your home appeared. Depending on your sympathies you can choose one or another historically established style of design and apply it in whole or in parts in your interior.
It is known for its style-forming element – the plastic wall, thanks to which the wall as if deprived of its main feature – reliability and monumentality, acquiring an unprecedented dynamism. In the interior there is an intentional complexity, rounded corners, lots of mirrors, gilded moldings, painted ceilings with the effect of “flowing” space in the “exalted heights”.
Appeals to prototypes of antique art as ideal model. Opposes the Baroque. Here the main features are symmetry and simplicity. Smooth surface of walls, limited clear volumes that do not conceal structure; softness of colors white and blue, perspective effects in minimalism of painting, ideal landscape that embodies the dream of golden age. Classicism is characterized by beautiful geometric shapes, restrained decor, expensive materials. The rooms are often decorated with sculpture and stucco.
The slogan of Art Nouveau is “back to nature. Characteristic complex system of ornamentation, the basis of which – strongly stylized flowers and plants, swans. For Art Nouveau “new” style born at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, as a movement to create a style of his era, used the rejection of old styling forms, the search for new materials: iron, glass, reinforced concrete. Free layout, different floor levels, large window openings. On the walls we see whimsically winding lines with a clear tendency to asymmetry. The walls of the room are colorful, often decorated with flat-relief plaster plastic. The furniture is decorated with stylized plant ornaments and is dominated by languid, stretched, wavy outlines. Functional zoning is introduced. Decorative interior design reaches an incredible sophistication. The form of windows, doors, staircases varied to infinity. The fluidity of rhythms, colors and textures is highlighted and enormously expressive. Ceramic cladding, wrought iron, window and door floral stained glass is often used.
A mixture of elements of Egyptian art, American Indian exotica and African primitive art. Stylish luxury interiors of ocean liners and expensive hotels are the standard of the style. The furniture styles are characterized by the use of decorative elements in the form of zigzags, circles, triangles and suns.
The color scheme uses rich brown tones, ivory, all shades of gold.
Laconic forms, reducing them mainly to geometric shapes. Nothing unnecessary. The design cultivates open spaces, stresses the aesthetics of simplicity and precision, all the elements of everyday life are carefully hidden. Things have a light silhouette and they are few in number. Complete absence of decoration, ornaments, clarity of composition. Restrained graphical palette of the walls and floor can be combined with bright interior items.
Translated from English, “country” means “village”. This style is characterized by nostalgia for a quiet country life, for everyday life, which is characterized by naturalness and simplicity, and lack of pretentiousness. The interiors have natural for country life brick and wood. Cowboy motifs, fabrics in check or small flowers, etc. are very popular. The color scheme is restrained: shades of greenish, beige and various brown tones can be combined with red and green inclusions.
Represents a modern modification of technicism. It is distinguished from the previous stages of high-tech by demonstrative super-technicalism, in which building structures, engineering systems and equipment are transformed into a decorative and theatrical with elements of exaggeration and sometimes irony. High-tech focuses on the aesthetic mastery of metal structures and glass, as well as elements of engineering equipment. It is important to highlight the beauty of holders, lights, fixtures and so on. Everything is practical and functional. Favorite colors: metallic, silver, white, black; materials: metal, glass, pipes.
Design – composition.
Composition in design is a construction (structure) of the work, design, location and relationship of its parts, due to their arrangement, corresponding to the purpose and technical idea of the work and its artistic and imaginative concept, reflecting the emotional and sensual expectations of the consumer design product.
The essence of the work on the composition is to expand the artistic side of the product, to achieve comprehensive unity and orderliness through the use of compositional means.
The essence of the concept of “composition”.
Composition – a connection of different parts in a single whole, in accordance with any idea, which together make up a specific form. The term “composition” is used in two aspects:
- It is the purposeful construction of a work of art, conditioned by its content, character and purpose.
- This is the most important organizing element of the art form, giving the work a harmonious unity and wholeness, which subordinates its components to each other and to the whole, acting as an attribute of the artwork.
The essence of the concept of “harmony”.
Harmony in Greek means consonance, agreement, the opposite of chaos. Harmony means a high level of orderliness, and meets aesthetic criteria of perfection and beauty. In relation to composition, harmony is understood as its formal characteristic.
The three main types of composition: frontal, volumetric, volumetric-spatial.
- Frontal. Distribution of elements in two directions: vertical and horizontal. Attributed to planar compositions and relief.
- Volumetric. Distribution of the element in coordinates of height, width and depth.
- Volumetric-spatial. Consists of several three-dimensional composition, located in space at certain intervals.
The laws of composition.
Basic laws of composition: wholeness and unity, balance, co-subordination.
Integrity. Through compliance with this law the work is perceived as a single indivisible whole, not as a sum of the disparate elements.
Balance. This is the state of composition, in which all elements are balanced with each other. Balanced parts of the whole acquire visual stability. Basically, the balance comes down to a balance of expression. Static and dynamic balance are distinguished.
Static. This is the state of the composition, in which the balanced elements as a whole make the impression of its unstable immobility.
Dynamic. This is the state of a composition in which the balanced elements give the impression of its movement and internal dynamics.
The co-subordination and equivalence of the elements. Subordination is the allocation of the center of the composition (dominant), which obey all the other elements (and not just obey, and increase its importance), ie, in the composition there is a hierarchy. There may be second-order dominants (accents) in the hierarchy. Depending on the number of levels of dominants, there are two degrees of hierarchy between elements: 1) two-level (dominant and second-order element[s] or dominant and accent). 2) three-leveled (for example, the dominant, accent, and minor elements).
The basic components of composition.
Contrast. This is a sharp distinction of elements, objects, shapes, etc. in the following categories: size, shape, tone, color, relation to space, etc. Distinguish:
Nuance. These are minor differences of elements in the composition in the same categories. Also distinguish one-dimensional and multidimensional nuance. In nuanced forms there is more similarity and the difference goes by a little bit.
Identity. It is the repetition of elements of the same, similar qualities (size, shape, tone. ).
Symmetry. This is the identical arrangement of elements relative to a point, axis or plane of symmetry, perceived by the eye as a special kind of orderly balance and harmony.
Asymmetry. It is a variant of composition in which the combination and arrangement of elements, axes, planes of symmetry is not observed. It is the absence, or violation of symmetry (dissymmetry).
Rhythm. It is the alternation of any elements in a certain sequence. (beat, measure, measured flow) The most important sign of rhythm is the repetition of elements (forms) and the intervals between them. Rhythmic repetition can be: uniform, decreasing or increasing. Depending on this, repetition may be of two types: static and dynamic.
Stylization. Before we talk about ornament, we must first pay attention to stylization. Stylization is the convention of expressive language. Stylization is achieved by generalization, the purpose of which is to make the object more understandable to the viewer and facilitate its execution for the artist.
“Stylization, in its substantive nature is applied in design to generalize, systematic co-subordination of signs, characteristics and properties in the content of the object itself.” Chernyshev.
Stylization is the use of artistic forms and techniques, stylistic features already encountered in the history of world art in a new content context to achieve certain ideological and aesthetic goals. Each material dictates its own way of stylization.
Ornament. Translated from Latin, it is a pattern consisting of rhythmically ordered elements designed to decorate any product or architectural object. Ornament is characterized by the use of two means: symmetry and rhythm.
The main feature of the ornament is its subordination to the artistic image, form and purpose of the object in the artistic treatment of which it is applied. The ornament does not have an independent artistic image, and depends entirely on the object on which it is applied.
Classification of ornament:
- By pictorial characteristic: vegetable, geometric, animalistic, anthropological, calligraphic, fantastic, astral, etc.
- By stylistic affiliation: antique, gothic, baroque, etc.
- By folk belonging: American, etc.
- By pictorial form: flat, relief (small elevation), counter-relief (small deepening inward).
Compositional construction of an ornament
There are 3 types of construction of an ornament: a rosette, a border and a rhapsody.
Rosetta is a closed composition, built using a plane or an axis of symmetry. There are 3 variants of rosette construction: mirror symmetry, axial symmetry (rotary variant) and mirror-axial symmetry (mirror-turned). On the basis of rosettes the ornament in a circle is built.
A border is a closed composition having rhythmic repetition of elements in two opposite directions and forming an ornamental band. Consider the different types of construction of borders:
Rapport or static mesh ornament is an unrestricted composition in which the straight lines (or planes of symmetry) intersect with each other forming a grid.
Interior design – a professional, creative action to create a functional and harmonious space at home, office, cottage, industrial premises.
Any of the objects of design will be a country house, apartment or office, it is always first some idea that was born in the imagination.
But in order to bring the idea to life – to build a house or apartment reconstruction should be to prepare a comprehensive project (design project), which fully reflects both aesthetic requirements and technical requirements for modern apartments or offices.
There are several stages in the preparation of such a comprehensive project:
1. Drawing up a design assignment.
This stage demands careful and thoughtful work of the Client together with the architect or the designer to make the description of requirements from the Client to the future object.
This description or otherwise the “Design assignment” is the basis for the architect’s further work on the apartment or office project.
2. Preliminary Design Proposal
A preliminary redevelopment plan.
Sketch of one room (by choice).
3. Measurements of the existing wall configuration
Working out of the planning schemes.
4. Working out of room sketches.
At this stage all fundamental solutions connected with layout and zoning of the apartment (office) are agreed upon, approximate furniture arrangement is performed, prospective outline sketches are made which allow to visualize the interior space of the designed object.
If necessary, a computer visualization of the object in three-dimensional format is performed.